عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the common schools in the modern world is Positivism whose methodological principles have affected not only natural sciences but also humanity. This paper with the analytic-descriptive method and library collection of data criticized five main principles of the positivism school including the principles of ontology, anthropology, epistemology, sociology, and axiology based on the principles of Transcendent theosophy or al-Hikmat al-Muta'āliyah. The limit of existence to matter, incompatibility of human freedom with necessity, inconformity of mind with object, the reality of society, and not perceiving values (absences of values) are the most important criticisms of Transcendent theosophy or al-Hikmat al-Muta'āliyah on the methodology of the positivism school. The most important findings of this research are the Positivists selected the quantitative research and limited the research to the data of experience-based they have the approach of the methodic convergent unity in the humanity methodology , while al-Hikmat al-Muta'āliyah considered the qualitative and quantitative method and non-exclusiveness of the sources of knowledge to natural sciences has used all capacity of the rational, transmitted knowledge and natural methods and has selected the approach of the methodic convergent diversity in humanity.