عنوان مقاله [English]
Montesquieu is one of the experts who has greatly influenced other thinkers and even politicians. In his book, The Spirit of Laws, he enumerates various social functions for religions. The researcher in the present study seeks to explain Montesquieu's theories with a critical approach and using the library method.Some of the conclusions he has reached in his studies of religion include the compatibility of moderate government with the religion of Christ and authoritarian rule with the government of Islam, the relationship of Catholicism with the monarchy and Protestantism with the republic, the need for morality to agree with the law. It is religious and ... which is mentioned in the text of the article.
What Montesquieu enumerates as the social functions of religion reflects his reductionist or instrumentalist view in the two areas of reducing the truth of religion to its function and reducing the transcendent goals of religion to the world.Also, his analysis of Islam seems to be incomplete and based on the behavior of oppressive rulers and caliphs during Islamic times. It should be noted that the bias and interference of religious interests in explaining matters is also one of the criticisms against him.
Weber, Max ،The sociology of religion, Boston, Beacon Press،1963،